1 edition of Inequality within and among population subgroups found in the catalog.
Inequality within and among population subgroups
rate among people in the lowest income group remained stable. 5 This highlights the importance of examining indicator rates across population subgroups because health improvements are not always equally distributed. This chartbook examines inequalities in asthma hospitalization by age, sex, income, geographic locationFile Size: 1MB. An ethnic group or ethnicity is a category of people who identify with each other, usually on the basis of presumed similarities such as common language, ancestry, history, society, culture, nation or social treatment within their residing area. Ethnicity is often used synonymously with the term nation, particularly in cases of ethnic nationalism, and is separate from but related to the. Income inequality in the United States grew significantly beginning in the early s, after several decades of stability. The US consistently exhibits higher rates of income inequality than most developed nations, arguably due to the nation's relatively less regulated markets.
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In empirical studies of the size distribution of incomes, a question is often encountered which concerns the extent to which inequality in the total population is a consequence of income differences between population subgroups classified by characteristics such as age, gender, race, educational level or Cited by: The latter are measures that account for the degree of income inequality within a given population of economic units (called here intra-income inequality ratios) while the former is intended to Author: Michele Costa.
We look specifically at the key patterns of inequality observed across different population subgroups and geographic areas. Finally, we touch briefly on the consequences of inequality, policy interventions that may address the persistent disparities between population subgroups, and future directions for : Mark Mather, Beth Jarosz.
Charles Blackorby & David Donaldson & Maria Auersperg, "A New Procedure for the Measurement of Inequality within and among Population Subgroups," Canadian. measurement and decomposition of inequality by population subgroups: a survey and an example Article (PDF Available) January with 31 Reads How we measure 'reads'Author: Panos Tsakloglou.
Inequality Decomposition by Population Subgroups for Ordinal Data Article in Journal of Health Economics 31(1) December with 64 Reads How we measure 'reads'. However, the complex interrelation of social, economic, and political determinants of undernutrition results in substantial inequalities between population subgroups.
This is especially observed in Latin American countries where health inequalities are still treated as a major concern [ 10 ].Cited by: 1. Therefore decomposition by population subgroups is considered a highly desired property of inequality indices.
This paper presents the class of decomposable indices for ordinal data. 1 Health surveys in which individuals are asked to choose their health status out of several options are an example of ordinal data that are frequently used in Cited by: The Latino population is no exception.
The high rate of population expansion among Latinos is due primarily to fertility and secondarily to immigration. InLatinos comprised only % of the US population; inthey comprised %, in %, in %, and at this writing they comprise over 15%.Cited by: Measuring poverty within and between population subgroups.
considered within poverty and inequality analysis. to apply our approach for measuring poverty within and between European. According to these authors, for given average expenditures of population subgroups, the between-group inequality will be maximal when the population subgroups are of.
and population subgroups is recent. It started with economists and policy analysts wishing to assess the contribution of inequality within and among different subgroups of the population to overall inequality (Bourguignon ; Cowell ; Shorrocks, ).
Since then various studies have used decomposition methodologies. Although the national infant mortality rate has decreased over the years to about 7 per 1, the rate among African-American infants is nearly twice as high, 14 per 1, and that among American Indians is per 1, whereas it is per 1, among whites (NCHS, ).
The State of inequality: reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health report delivers both promising and disappointing messages about the situation in low- and middle-income countries. On the one hand, within-country inequalities have narrowed, with a tendency for national improvements driven by faster improvements in disadvantaged subgroups.
Charles Blackorby, et. al, “A New Procedure for the Measurement of Inequality Within and Among Population Subgroups,”Canadian Journal of Cited by: 2. Among various possible forms of individual contributions to the Gini found in the literature, we show that only one form satisfies a set of desirable properties.
This form can be used for decomposing the Gini into population subgroups. An empirical Cited by: 3. On the other hand, when analyzing the spatial decomposition of inequality, it is usual to express global inequality as a weighted sum of inequality values calculated for population subgroups (within component) plus the contribution arising out of differences among Cited by: 2.
The purpose of this research is to introduce a new approach to the decomposition of the Gini ratio into three components, supporting them with economic and statistical rigorous interpretations.
() A new procedure for the measurment of inequality within and among population subgroups. Canadian Journal of Economics – Google Cited by: Health and wealth have always been closely related (Wilkinson, ), and economically disadvantaged racial/ethnic minority populations in the United States experience worse health status on multiple indicators of physical health (Williams, in press).
The existence of inequality—a property of the population in question—thus has important consequences for the health of individuals and by: 5. This analysis is quite revealing for understanding and explaining income idfferences among certain population subgroups with apparent policy implications.
The degree to which overall inequality is attributable to inequality between these sub groups or to inequality within them is investigated, employing a decomposition analysis by population subgroups. In contrast, a health inequity, or health disparity, is a specific type of health inequality that denotes an unjust difference in health.
By one common definition, when health differences are preventable and unnecessary, allowing them to persist is unjust (13).Cited by: Global Wealth Inequality. The world’s richest 1 percent, those with more than $1 million, own 45 percent of the world’s wealth. Adults with less than $10, in wealth make up 64 percent of the world’s population but hold less than 2 percent of global wealth.
inequality related to justice outcomes for youth ages 5 to 25 in the United States: 1 First and foremost; I will start with the known facts: Facts are the foundation for setting a strong research agenda and creating policies and programs that will reduce inequality.
9 Distribution and Dynamics. This chapter provides techniques required to measure and analyse inequality among the poor (section ), to describe changes over time using repeated cross-sectional data (section ), to understand changes across dynamic subgroups (section ) and to measure chronic multidimensional poverty (section ).
As it is shown in Fig. 2, in differences between social classes accounted for more than one fifth of overall earnings inequality, and for 16% of income both cases, the between component of inequality decreased in the following decade, reaching a minimum in The relevance of social class in structuring economic inequalities was rapidly diminishing during the by: Economic Inequality Among Racial and Ethnic Groups THIRTY-FOUR YEARS AGO the signing of the Civil Rights Act of set the Nation on a course toward racial equality.
As the econ-omy surged, income differences narrowed for a full decade. The sharp recessions of the mids and early s hit black and Hispanic Americans particularly hard File Size: 1MB.
This article first appeared in Inequality Matters – LIS newsletter, Is March Notes. 1 The squared root of the household size. 2 While MLD is exactly decomposable into the sum of between-group and within-group inequalities, Gini can accommodate zero (or negative) incomes that might arise if we remove an income source from disposable income.
immunization coverage among children aged months in Kenya, Ghana, and the within-country inequalities still exist.
Inequality refers to the observed differences in coverage between different population subgroups. Measuring and monitoring these inequalitiesCited by: 1.
Health inequalities are differentials in disease distribution among subgroups or between different social locations that exist within a population. Yet the most salient cause of health inequality is social stratification which only varies between populations.
This mismatch of levels of analysis has confused efforts by researchers committed to Author: Alicia R. Riley. Immunization is one of the most cost-effective health intervention to halt the spread of childhood diseases, and improve child health.
Yet, there is a substantial disparity in childhood immunization coverage. The overall objective of the study is to investigate the trends of within-country inequalities in childhood immunization coverage among children aged 12–23 months in Kenya, Cited by: 1.
Inequalities in risk exposure in housing and urban environments exist in all Member States, and a study conducted by WHO/Europe indicates that low prevalence of certain environmental exposures within the total population may hide stark inequalities in exposure between different population subgroups.
Health inequalities are among the main. stratification of subgroups contributes to overall inequality by decomposing the Gini index into between-group inequality, within-group inequality, and a term capturing the degree of subgroup stratification.
Section 2 applies our stratification measure and decomposition procedure to income inequality in. and to assess disparity in poverty across population subgroups.
We demonstrate the applicability of our approach through two contrasting inter-temporal illustrations using Demographic Health Survey (DHS) datasets for Haiti and India. Keywords: Inequality decomposition, Inequality among the poor, Multidimensional poverty.
Charles Blackorby & David Donaldson & Maria Auersperg, "A New Procedure for the Measurement of Inequality within and among Population Subgroups," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol.
14(4), pagesNovember. Blackorby, Charles &. Table 1 presents life expectancy and length of life inequality for the total world in the year The figures are based on a set of life tables for countries, covering over 99% of the world population.
For countries for which no real life tables were available, we used best estimates produced by the WHO on the basis of surveys and region-specific models (Lopez et al., ).Cited by: The following sections review three strands of evidence on whether heritability of educational traits differs: (1) among population subgroups within a country at a particular time (e.g.
people of lower and higher socioeconomic status); (2) among birth and age cohorts within a country (e.g. people born before and after social reforms; pre-school Cited by: 5.
Abstract I examine the changes in poverty and inequality in South Africa during the first 5 years following the end of the apartheid era.
First, I construct new, comparable consumption aggregates for and Second, using the “cost‐of basic‐needs” approach, I derive lower‐bound (R, in South African rands) and upper‐bound (R) poverty lines (per capita per month in Cited by: the fact that inequalities within minority groups were substantial: often as great as, and sometimes greater than, inequality in the population as a whole.
The report also showed that inequalities between groups contribute little to inequality overall, and this is true for all the strands (gender, disability, ethnicity, age) that the NEP covered. A Review of Decomposition of Income Inequality This paper is a review of recent developments of parametric and non-parametric approaches to decompose inequality by subgroups, income sources, causal factors and other unit characteristics.
Different methods of. Policy Impacts on Inequality Decomposition of Income Inequality by Subgroups 1 1. SUMMARY This tool illustrates how to decompose inequality measures by subgroups of populations. In particular, it defines the concepts of within and between inequality and analyses how different inequality indexes perform with respect to this decomposition.
InFile Size: KB. Among the employed, the prevalence of poor mental health increased during the crisis period in all educational groups, except for the university group where it decreased (from top among the unemployed population only in the secondary studies group a significant increase in poor mental health was detected.Possible causes of post-apartheid inequality Unemployment.
South Africa has extremely high unemployment rates. The overall unemployment rate was 26% inRedistribution aims to transfer White-owned commercial farms to Black South Africans.
Restitution involves giving compensation to land lost to Whites due to apartheid, racism, and discrimination. Land tenure reform strives to provide more.Inequality within groups is the level of inequality remaining after re It is when following the decomposition according to population groups that we know that inequality among all citizens of the world is mainly determined by differences in the average income of the country in which we live (inequality between countries), even if the within.